- Orally applied menthol improves endurance and time-trial performance when applied repeatedly throughout exercise
- a large body of recent research has established that your physical performance is profoundly influenced by not only the body’s physiology and biochemistry during exercise, but also how the brain perceivesthat exercise/effort.
- Exercise performance can be improved by application of non-thermally cooling menthol, which also reduces perceptual measures of thermal sensation. Internal application appears to be the best strategy to improve performance.
The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.
In this situation, menthol appears to have the greatest beneficial effect on 9 performance when applied internally. In contrast, the majority of investigations into 10 the external application of menthol demonstrated no performance benefit.
- We concluded that stimulation of cold receptors in the upper airway with nasal inhalation of l-menthol reduces the sensation of respiratory discomfort associated with loaded breathing.
- 20mg of menthol ingested (about 3 fisherman’s choice lozenges)
- 30 male students 15 placebo?
- A considerable enhancement in the grip force, spiromery, and other parameters were the important findings of this study.
- exercise performance can be improved by application of non-thermally cooling menthol, which also reduces perceptual measures of thermal sensation
Dallam’s study suggest that the body adapts to nasal breathing by developing an increased tolerance to changes in blood CO2, lessening air hunger. They also show that it is possible to maintain VO2 max and peak performance following a period of training using only nasal breathing, and that nasally restricted breathing during training may be beneficial for endurance athletes who want to boost their performance and maintain good respiratory health7. This is coherent with findings of previous research, which demonstrated that air hunger could be lessened by using exercises to increase end tidal carbon dioxide and push feelings of air hunger beyond normal ‘comfortable’ level
Menthol applied topically to the tracheal mucosa prior to and during citric acid application or administered continuously as vapors or as an aerosol to the lower airways was without effect on cough. These actions of upper airway menthol treatment were mimicked by cold air delivered to the upper airways but not by (+)-menthol, the inactive isomer of menthol, or by the TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist icilin administered directly to the trachea. Subsequent molecular analyses confirmed the expression of TRPM8 in a subset of nasal trigeminal afferent neurons that do not coincidently express TRPA1 or TRPV1. We conclude that menthol suppresses cough evoked in the lower airways primarily through a reflex initiated from the nose.
- TRPM8 receptors in nasal passages have different effects than those located in the mouth
Brain serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters related to fatigue, a feeling that leads to reduced intensity or interruption of physical exercises, thereby regulating performance. The present review aims to present advances on the understanding of fatigue, which has recently been proposed as a defense mechanism instead of a “physiological failure” in the context of prolonged (aerobic) exercises. We also present recent advances on the association between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. Experiments with rodents, which allow direct manipulation of brain serotonin and dopamine during exercise, clearly indicate that increased serotoninergic activity reduces performance, while increased dopaminergic activity is associated with increased performance. Nevertheless, experiments with humans, particularly those involving nutritional supplementation or pharmacological manipulations, have yielded conflicting results on the relationship between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. The only clear and reproducible effect observed in humans is increased performance in hot environments after treatment with inhibitors of dopamine reuptake. Because the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems interact with each other, the serotonin-to-dopamine ratio seems to be more relevant for determining fatigue than analyzing or manipulating only one of the two transmitters. Finally, physical training protocols induce neuroplasticity, thus modulating the action of these neurotransmitters in order to improve physical performance.
ARTICLES AND RESEARCH ON DYSPNEA
No FDA approved medication or device to relieve Dyspnea
To Improve COPD Care Chest Editorial 2017
“Although randomized clinical trials demonstrate that various medications provide clinically meaningful relief of dyspnea during daily activities in patients with COPD,5 there is no treatment approved by the FDA for relief of breathing difficulty.”
- This shows the emphasis on oral inhalation over time and effort to improve oral inhalers for treatment of lung disorders.
- Nasal inhalation devices have seen little change over the past hundred years other than, the use of small plastic cylindrical containers holding TRPM8 agonists that can be inhaled trough nasal passages when inserted in the entrances to nasal passages and or the use of a hand held container holding hot water and volatile TRPM8 agonists which can be inhaled when container is held in front of nasal entrances.